Minggu, 22 Mei 2011

sentences

A. Pengertian Sentence (Kalimat)
Menurut Ilmu Bahasa, sentence (kalimat) adalah sekumpulan kata yang mempunyai paling sedikit satu subjek dan satu predikat serta mengandung pengertian yang sempurna (lengkap). Sebuah kalimat diawali dengan huruf besar dan diakhiri dengan titik.
Atau didalam wikipedia ada dijelaskan akan tetapi saya tidak mendapati yang berbahasa Indonesia dan hanya mendapati yang berbahasa Inggris. Adapun yang tertulis didalam wikipedia adalah sebagai berikut : In linguistics, a sentence is a grammatical unit of one or more words, bearing minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it, often preceded and followed in speech by pauses, having one of a small number of characteristic intonation patterns, and typically expressing an independent statement, question, request, command, etc. Sentences are generally characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb.

B. Pembagian Kalimat

• Simple Sentence (Kalimat Sederhana) yaitu kalimat yang hanya mengandung satu verb (kata keja) utama yang mencerminkan adanya satu gagasan saja.
• Compound Sentence (Kalimat Majemuk) yaitu kalimat yang mengandung dua verb utama atau lebih yang menggambarkan 2 gagasan atau lebih yang disambungkan dengan kata sambung (conjunctions).
• Complex Sentence (Kalimat Sempurna) yaitu kalimat yang mengandung 1 main clause (kalimat induk) dan 1 atau lebih anak kalimat yang dihubungkan dengan Kata Ganti Penghubung (Relative Pronouns).
• Complex-Compound Sentence (Kalimat Majemuk Sempurna) yaitu kalimat gabungan antara kalimat majemuk dan kalimat sempurna yaitu kalimat yang terdiri dari 1 atau lebih kalimat utama dan 1 atau lebih anak kalimat .
Perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat berikut ini:
• Jean is in the house (simple sentence)
• It’s starting to rain and I have left my deck-chair outside (Compound Sentence)
• The suspect denied that he had been in the neighborhood (Complex Sentence)
• The man stole the jewelry and he did it in his home until he could safely get out of town. (Complex-Compound Sentence)
1. Simple Sentence
A simple sentence is a sentence structure that contains one independent clause and no dependent clauses.
Examples
• The singer bowed.
This simple sentence has one independent clause which contains one subject, singer, and one predicate, bowed.
• The baby cried.
This simple sentence has one independent clause which contains one subject, baby, and one predicate, cried.
2. Compound sentence (linguistics)
In the English language, a compound sentence is composed of at least two independent clauses. It does not require a dependent clause. The clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction (with or without a comma), a correlative conjunction (with or without a comma), or a semicolon that functions as a conjunction. A conjunction can be used to make a compound sentence. The use of a comma to separate two independent clauses in a sentence is accepted as part of the English language.
Example: My honey invited me to a cinema, but I do not want to go.
3. Complex sentence
A complex sentence is a sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent clause (subordinating clause). The dependent clause is introduced by either a subordinate conjunction such as although, or because or a relative pronoun such as who or which.
Examples
• When I saw what you had done, I was sad.
o Independent clause: I was sad
o Dependent clauses: When I saw and what you had done
• Knowing that you hate me makes me sad.
o A complex sentence with a sub-clause functioning as a subject.
o Independent clause: (subject) makes me sad.
o Dependent clause: That you hate me (acting as the subject)
Also when using a verb don’t use “ing” endings.
• Some voters want special consideration that accounts for their handicaps.
o This complex sentence’s subordinate clause is offset by a relative pronoun rather than by a subordinating conjunction. “That” serves a nominal function and serves as a substitute for the noun “consideration” in the independent clause.
o Independent clause: Some voters want special consideration
o Dependent clause: that accounts for their handicaps (modifies the noun in the independent clause)
4. Complex-compound sentence
In syntax, a sentence with at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses is referred to as a complex-compound sentence. Sometimes also called a compound-complex sentence.
Examples
The cat lived in the backyard, but the dog, who knew he was superior, lived inside the house.
Independent clauses:
• The cat lived in the backyard.
Dependent clause:
• who knew he was superior
Though the movie had been tested on the market, The Last Shadow did not fare well in the United States, but it did develop a huge following in Europe, which usually does not go for this movie genre.

C. Pembagian Kalimat Berdasarkan Fungsi Penggunaannya

• Declarative Sentence (Statement) – yaitu kalimat berita atau pernyataan, yang positif maupun negatif, yang benar atau bohong. Posisi Subjek kalimat sebelum kata kerja kalimat tersebut.
• Interrogative Sentence (Question) – yaitu kalimat pertanyaan. Kalimat ini terbagi lagi menjadi Yes/No Question (Kalimat yang jawabannya yes/no yang diawali dengan Auxiliary), Information Question (Kalimat tanya yang jawabannya memerlukan keterangan dan diawali dengan kata tanya), dan Embedded Questions (Pertanyaan di dalam sebuah pernyataan).
• Exclamatory Sentence (Exclamation) – yaitu kalimat yang menyatakan seruan atau ucapan yang spontan karena heran, kagum, terkejut, sedih, dll.
• Imperative Sentence (Command) – yaitu kalimat perintah yang mencakup kalimat permohonan, doa dan sebagainya.
Perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimatnya berikut ini:
• How many spoons are in that box? (Question – Information Question)
• Are you alone? (Question – Yes/No Question)
• What good boy! (Exclamation)

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